• Chemistry: Cu19SO4Cl4(OH)32 - 3H2O, Hydrated Copper Sulfate Chloride Hydroxide.
  • Class: Sulfates.
  • Uses: As a minor ore of copper and as mineral specimens.
  • Specimens

Connellite is a classic Cornwall mineral. It has a deep blue color and is often associated with other copper minerals yielding beautifully colored specimens with various shades of green and blue. Although it is somewhat rare, specimens of connellite are available from time to time; for a price. They are well worth the price though, as they rival azurite's color and have a unique acicular (needle-like) to fibrous habit. Microcrystals are particularly appreciated as the diminutive size of the crystal does seemingly nothing to diminish the intensity of the color.

Connellite is named after a Scottish chemist; A. Connell. When first discovered in the 1790's at Wheal Gorland in Cornwall, connellite was thought to be an arsenic of copper. It wasn't until the 1850's that connellite was properly identified as a copper sulfate. Connellite is related to the nitrate mineral buttgenbachite. The two minerals are isostructural and share the same chemistry, except for the primary anion group. Connellite is a secondary mineral found in some unusual oxidation zones of copper deposits. When available, specimens should quickly be purchased as they will soon be a treasured addition to anyone's collection.


  • Color is deep blue to a more rare, blue-green.
  • Luster is vitreous.
  • Transparency: Specimens are mostly translucent to individual crystals being transparent.
  • Crystal System is hexagonal; 6 2 2.
  • Crystal Habits include acicular to fibrous crystals arranged in tufts, layers or radial aggregates.
  • Cleavage is absent.
  • Fracture is uneven.
  • Hardness is 3
  • Specific Gravity is approximately 3.4 - 3.5 (slightly above average for non-metallic minerals).
  • Streak is blue.
  • Associated Minerals include quartz, azurite, cuprite, brochantite, caledonite, atacamite, paratacamite, paramelaconite, malachite, cornubite and chalcophyllite, among others.
  • Notable Occurrences are limited to the Wheal Gorland and other mines of the Wheal Providence, Cornwall, England; South Africa and the mines of Bisbee, New Cornelia, Mammoth-St Anthony and Copper Queen of Arizona, USA.
  • Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, associations and locality.
CONNELLITE specimens:
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CONNELLITE specimen cnl-1
$ 60.00
Dims: 2.6 x 2.4 x 1.6" (6.6 x 6.0 x 4.1 cm)
Wt: 8.9 oz. (251 g)
Gold Hill Mine, 150 level, Tooele County, Utah, U.S.A.
A small crust of crushed or powdery Connellite rests on the copper-laden base of this cabinet piece. The crust appears to be made up of countless tiny, crushed fibers and has a pale blue color and a generally dull luster. These fibers are too fine to easily study, but likely have good hexagonal, acicular form and are at least translucent. The base holds several other copper minerals, including chalcopyrite, cuprite and likely a small amount of malachite.
no photo
cnl-1 ($ 60.00)
Gold Hill Mine, 150 level, Tooele County, Utah, U.S.A.
CONNELLITE specimen cnl-2
$ 30.00
Dims: 2.5 x 1.9 x 1.7" (6.4 x 4.9 x 4.3 cm)
Wt: 6.6 oz. (188 g)
Gold Hill Mine, 150 level, Tooele County, Utah, U.S.A.
A few small patches of sky-blue Connellite rest on the base of this cabinet specimen. These patches are actually crushed mattes of tiny Connellite fibers that are far too fine to study with a loupe. The crusts have a dull luster and appear to extend part way into the base rock in a small vein. A myriad of other copper-bearing minerals are visible on the host rock, including cuprite, malachite and possibly chrysocolla or turquoise, brochantite, conichalcite and one or more copper sulfide minerals.
no photo
cnl-2 ($ 30.00)
Gold Hill Mine, 150 level, Tooele County, Utah, U.S.A.
CONNELLITE specimen cnl-3
$ 25.00
Dims:1.0x0.7x0.1" (2.5x1.8x0.3 cm)
Wt: 0.05oz. (1.4g)
Perrin St. George Mine, Cornwall, England
This thumbnail consists of a bit of massive connellite. No evidence of crystal form may be seen, and it has a dull luster. The color is a medium blue, a copper indicator. There is a small amount of matrix material on the back of this specimen. Connellite is named for the Scottish geologist, Arthur Connell.
no photo
cnl-3 ($ 25.00)
Perrin St. George Mine, Cornwall, England
CONNELLITE specimen cnl-4
$ 36.00
Dims:0.9x0.9x0.4" (2.3x2.3x1.0 cm)
Wt: 0.1oz. (3g)
Perrin St. George Mine, Cornwall, England
This specimen consists of a crust of massive connellite on a bit of matrix material. There are no crystals visible to study the hexagonal form of this mineral. Viewed on edge, however, it is interesting to observe the banding showing the layers of deposition. There is no damage to this specimen other than where it was broken from the host rock.
no photo
cnl-4 ($ 36.00)
Perrin St. George Mine, Cornwall, England


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