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The Carbonates Class

Including the Carbonates, the Uranyl Carbonates , the Rare Earth Carbonates, the Nitrates, the Iodates and the Borates.



The carbonates and related nitrates and borates are common constituents of the earth's near-surface crust. This is a structurally-related as well as chemically-related group. The basic anionic (negatively charged) unit of this class consists of a triangle where at the center resides either a carbon, nitrogen or boron atom. At every corner of the triangle sits an oxygen atom. The threefold symmetry of the triangle explains the trigonal symmetry that many members of this class possess. As long as the triangles of the anionic group fall in a plane parallel with the plane of the triangle and all other bonds in the structure, when viewed perpendicular to this plane, are multiples of three, and are evenly separated from each other, the mineral will have a trigonal symmetry.

As complicated as this seems it is in fact the simplest condition of the carbonates. Simplicity often expresses the highest symmetry. As a sphere is more symmetrical than a football; a simple carbonate is more symmetrical than a more complex carbonate and in fact has the highest symmetry of this class, bar 3 2/m.

Although somewhat varied, this class' properties can be generalized more so than the other classes. Typical carbonates are transparent, lightly colored with a white streak, average to above average in density, soft with good to perfect cleavage, soluble to at least some degree in acidic solutions, and tend to originate in sedimentary and oxidizing environments with the exception of carbonatite igneous intrusions. Most of these common characteristics are due to the common chemistry the group shares and members that diverge from the norm do so because of the effects of metal cations such as lead, copper, manganese and iron.

The Borate minerals as a whole are more complex in their structures than typical carbonates and could be considered their own class for that reason. For more discussion and a rather extensive list of borate minerals see the Borate Minerals page.


The Carbonates

  • Alstonite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Alumohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • The Aragonite Group:
  • Artinite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Aurichalcite (Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Azurite (Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Barbertonite (Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Barentsite (Sodium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
  • Barringtonite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate)
  • Barytocalcite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Baylissite (Hydrated Potassium Magnesium Carbonate)
  • Beyerite (Calcium Lead Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
  • Bismutite (Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
  • Brenkite (Calcium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Brugnatellite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Butschliite (Potassium Calcium Carbonate)
  • The Calcite Group:
  • Caresite (Hydrated Iron Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Chalconatronite (Hydrated Sodium Copper Carbonate)
  • Charmarite (Hydrated Manganese Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Dawsonite (Sodium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • The Dolomite Group:
    • Ankerite (Calcium Iron Carbonate)
    • Benstonite (Barium Strontium Calcium Manganese Magnesium Carbonate)
    • Dolomite (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
    • Huntite (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
    • Kutnohorite (Calcium Manganese Magnesium Iron Carbonate)
    • Minrecordite (Calcium Zinc Carbonate)
    • Norsethite (Barium Magnesium Carbonate)
  • Dresserite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Dundasite (Hydrated Lead Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Eitelite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate)
  • Fairchildite (Potassium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Gaylussite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Georgeite (Hydrated Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Hellyerite (Hydrated Nickel Carbonate)
  • Hydrocerussite (Lead Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Hydrodresserite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Hydrotalcite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Hydrozincite (Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Ikaite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate)
  • Indigirite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Kalicinite (Potassium Bicarbonate)
  • Kambaldaite (Hydrated Sodium Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Kettnerite (Calcium Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
  • Lansfordite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate)
  • Leadhillite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Liebigite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Loseyite (Manganese Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Macphersonite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Malachite (Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Manasseite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Monohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate)
  • Nahcolite (Sodium Bicarbonate)
  • Natrite (Sodium Carbonate)
  • Natrofairchildite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Natron (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate)
  • Nesquehonite (Hydrated Magnesium Bicarbonate Hydroxide)
  • Northupite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate Chloride)
  • Nyerereite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Olekminskite (Strontium Calcium Barium Carbonate)
  • Paralstonite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Para-alumohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Phosgenite (Lead Carbonate Cloride)
  • Pirssonite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Plumbonacrite (Lead Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
  • Pokrovskite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Pyroaurite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Quintinite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • The Rosasite Group:
    • Glaukospherite (Copper Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
    • Kolwezite (Copper Cobalt Carbonate Hydroxide)
    • Mcguinnessite (Magnesium Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
    • Nullaginite (Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
    • Rosasite (Copper Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
    • Zincrosasite (Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Rouvilleite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Carbonate Fluoride Hydroxide)
  • Sabinaite (Sodium Zirconium Titanium Carbonate Oxide)
  • Sclarite (Zinc Magnesium Manganese Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Sergeevite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Bicarbonate Hydroxide)
  • Shannonite (Lead Carbonate Oxide)
  • Sheldrickite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Shortite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
  • Sjogrenite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Stichtite (Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Strontiodresserite (Hydrated Strontium Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Susannite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Szymanskiite (Hydrated Mercury Nickel Magnesium Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
  • Teschemacherite (Ammonia Bicarbonate)
  • Thermonatrite (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate)
  • Trona (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate)
  • Tunisite (Sodium Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide Chloride)
  • Tychite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate Sulfate)
  • Vaterite (Calcium Carbonate)
  • Wegscheiderite (Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate)
  • Weloganite (Hydrated Sodium Strontium Calcium Zirconium Carbonate)
  • Zaratite (Hydrated Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Zemkorite (Sodium Potassium Calcium Carbonate)

The Uranyl Carbonates

  • Andersonite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Astrocyanite-(Ce) (Hydrated Copper Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Praseodymium Samarium Calcium Yttrium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Bayleyite (Hydrated Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Bijvoetite-(Y) (Hydrated Yttrium Dysprosium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Fontanite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Grimselite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Joliotite (Hydrated Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Liebigite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Metazellerite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Rabbittite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Roubaultite (Copper Uranyl Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
  • Rutherfordine (Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Schrokingerite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Uranyl Sulfate Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Shabaite (Hydrated Copper Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Praseodymium Samarium Calcium Yttrium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Sharpite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Swartzite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Voglite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Widenmannite (Lead Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Zellerite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
  • Znucalite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)

The Rare Earth Carbonates

  • Ancylite-(Ce) (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Strontium Calcium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Baiyuneboite-(Ce) (Sodium Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Bastnasite (Cerium Lanthanum Yttrium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Burbankite (Sodium Calcium Strontium Barium Cerium Carbonate)
  • Calcioancylite (Hydrated Calcium Strontium Cerium Neodymium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Calkinsite-(Ce) (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate)
  • Carbocernaite (Calcium Sodium Strontium Cerium Barium Carbonate)
  • Cebaite (Barium Cerium Neodymium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Cordylite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Daqingshanite-(Ce) (Strontium Calcium Barium Cerium Lanthanum Phosphate Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
  • Donnayite-(Y) (Hydrated Sodium Strontium Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
  • Ewaldite (Barium Calcium Yttrium Sodium Potassium Carbonate)
  • Gysinite-(Nd) (Hydrated Neodymium Lead Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Horvathite-(Y) (Sodium Yttrium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Huanghoite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Hydroxylbasnasite (Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
  • Hydroxylcarbonate-(Nd) (Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Khanneshite (Sodium Calcium Barium Strontium Cerium Carbonate)
  • Kimuraite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
  • Lanthanite (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate)
  • lokkaite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
  • Mckelveyite-(Y) (Hydrated Barium Sodium Calcium Uranium Yttrium Carbonate)
  • Parisite (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Reederite-(Y) (Sodium Yttrium Carbonate Sulfate Chloride)
  • Remondite-(Ce) (Sodium Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Strontium Carbonate)
  • Rontgenite-(Ce) (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Sahamalite-(Ce) (Magnesium Iron Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate)
  • Schuilingite-(Nd) (Hydrated Lead Copper Neodymium Gadolinium Samarium Yttrium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Shomiokite (Hydrated Sodium Yttrium Carbonate)
  • Synchysite (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Yttrium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Tengerite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate Hydroxide)
  • Thorbastnasite (Hydrated Thorium Calcium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
  • Tuliokite (Hydrated Barium Sodium Thorium Carbonate)
  • Tundrite (Sodium Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Titanium Niobium Silicate Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
  • Zhonghuacerite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)


See also mineral lists of these subclasses: the Borates, Nitrates and Iodates

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