Here are the modern (listed first) and traditional birthstones, and in some cases their commonly recognized substitutes. Also listed are some values each stone represents. Click on the month name or gemstone name for additional information regarding that birth stone; click on the Jewelry links for a selection of fine jewelry from a variety of highly ranked jewelers.
Birthstones tend to be a very personal choice, even to the point that people who don't like the color of their true birthstone will find any excuse to claim another. For example, the true November birthstone is citrine or golden topaz, yet many people choose blue topaz even though that lovely blue color is the result of treatment of a golden or colorless natural topaz crystal.
Note that blue sapphire is the traditional color for September. But sapphires come in every color of the rainbow (except hues of red which are given the name ruby), as do tourmalines and even diamonds. Garnet, usually thought of as a red birthstone, actually is available in a variety of colors including orange, green, and even the lovely deep purple color of grapes.
Tanzanite became an official December birthstone on October 30, 2002, in the first revision since 1912 to the birthstone list maintained by the American Gem Trade Association (AGTA).
In addition to the individual jewelry links above, consider BIRTHSTONE JEWELRY which often incorporates multiple birthstones, such as one for each child.
Also see the Stones of the Seasons, and the Weekday Stones. For the "sign stones" which are based upon the astrological signs (constellations) of the Zodiac, see Zodiac Birthstones. For the "stones of the Bible", see Biblestones. Also see Anniversary Gift Ideas for a list of appropriate stones for any anniversary.